“Service incidents like outages are an unlucky inevitability of the know-how trade. In fact, we’re continuously enhancing the reliability of the Microsoft Azure cloud platform. We meet and exceed our Service Degree Agreements (SLAs) for the overwhelming majority of shoppers and proceed to spend money on evolving instruments and coaching that make it straightforward so that you can design and function mission-critical methods with confidence.

Despite these efforts, we acknowledge the unlucky actuality that—given the dimensions of our operations and the tempo of change—we’ll by no means have the ability to keep away from outages fully. Throughout these instances we endeavor to be as open and clear as doable to make sure that all impacted prospects and companions perceive what’s occurring. As a part of our Advancing Reliability weblog collection, I requested Sami Kubba, Principal Program Supervisor overseeing our outage communications course of, to stipulate the investments we’re making to proceed enhancing this expertise.”—Mark Russinovich, CTO, Azure


Within the cloud trade, now we have a dedication to convey our prospects the most recent know-how at scale, retaining prospects and our platform safe, and making certain that our buyer expertise is all the time optimum. For this to occur Azure is topic to a big quantity of change—and in uncommon circumstances, it’s this transformation that may result in unintended influence for our prospects. As beforehand talked about on this collection of weblog posts we take change very critically and make sure that now we have a systematic and phased approach to implementing modifications as rigorously as doable.

We proceed to establish the inherent (and generally delicate) imperfections within the advanced ways in which our architectural designs, operational processes, {hardware} points, software program flaws, and human components can align to trigger service incidents—often known as outages. The fact of our trade is that influence brought on by change is an intrinsic downside. Once we take into consideration outage communications we have a tendency not to consider our competitors as being different cloud suppliers, however moderately the on-premises atmosphere. On-premises change home windows are managed by directors. They select one of the best time to invoke any change, handle and monitor the dangers, and roll it again if failures are noticed.

Equally, when an outage happens in an on-premises atmosphere, prospects and customers really feel that they’re extra ‘in the know.’ Management is promptly made totally conscious of the outage, they get entry to assist for troubleshooting, and count on that their workforce or companion firm can be ready to offer a full Put up Incident Report (PIR)—beforehand referred to as Root Trigger Evaluation (RCA)—as soon as the difficulty is known. Though our knowledge evaluation helps the speculation that point to mitigate an incident is quicker within the cloud than on-premises, cloud outages can really feel extra aggravating for purchasers with regards to understanding the difficulty and what they’ll do about it.

Introducing our communications rules

Throughout cloud outages, some prospects have traditionally reported feeling as if they’re not promptly knowledgeable, or that they miss crucial updates and due to this fact lack a full understanding of what occurred and what’s being carried out to stop future points occurring. Based mostly on these perceptions, we now function by 5 pillars that information our communications technique—all of which have influenced our Azure Service Health expertise within the Azure portal and embody:

  1. Velocity
  2. Granularity
  3. Discoverability
  4. Parity
  5. Transparency


We should notify impacted prospects as shortly as doable. That is our key goal round outage communications. Our purpose is to inform all impacted Azure subscriptions inside 15 minutes of an outage. We all know that we are able to’t obtain this with human beings alone. By the point an engineer is engaged to research a monitoring alert to verify influence (not to mention participating the fitting engineers to mitigate it, in what generally is a difficult array of interconnectivities together with third-party dependencies) an excessive amount of time has handed. Any delay in communications leaves prospects asking, “Is it me or is it Azure?” Prospects can then spend unnecessary time troubleshooting their very own environments. Conversely, if we determine to err on the facet of warning and talk each time we suspect any potential buyer influence, our prospects may obtain too many false positives. Extra importantly, if they’re having a difficulty with their very own atmosphere, they may simply attribute these unrelated points to a false alarm being despatched by the platform. It’s crucial that we make investments that allow our communications to be each quick and correct.

Final month, we outlined our continued funding in advancing Azure service quality with artificial intelligence: AIOps. This consists of working in the direction of enhancing automated detection, engagement, and mitigation of cloud outages. Components of this broader AIOps program are already being utilized in manufacturing to inform prospects of outages that could be impacting their assets. These automated notifications represented greater than half of our outage communications within the final quarter. For a lot of Azure companies, automated notifications are being despatched in lower than 10 minutes to impacted prospects by way of Service Well being—to be accessed within the Azure portal, or to set off Service Health alerts which have been configured, extra on this beneath.

With our funding on this space already enhancing the shopper expertise, we’ll proceed to broaden the situations by which we are able to notify prospects in lower than 15 minutes from the influence begin time, all with out the necessity for people to verify buyer influence. We’re additionally within the early levels of increasing our use of AI-based operations to establish associated impacted companies routinely and, upon mitigation, ship decision communications (for supported situations) as shortly as doable.


We perceive that when an outage causes influence, prospects want to know precisely which of their assets are impacted. One of many key constructing blocks in getting the well being of particular assets are Resource Health alerts. The Useful resource Well being sign will examine if a useful resource, similar to a digital machine (VM), SQL database, or storage account, is in a wholesome state. Prospects also can create Resource Health alerts, which leverage Azure Monitor, to let the fitting individuals know if a selected useful resource is having points, no matter whether or not it’s a platform-wide subject or not. That is vital to notice: a Useful resource Well being alert could be triggered on account of a useful resource changing into unhealthy (for instance, if the VM is rebooted from throughout the visitor) which isn’t essentially associated to a platform occasion, like an outage. Prospects can see the related Resource Health checks, organized by useful resource sort.

We’re constructing on this know-how to enhance and correlate every buyer useful resource(s) that has moved into an unhealthy state with platform outages, all inside Service Well being. We’re additionally investigating how we are able to embody the impacted assets in our communication payloads, in order that prospects received’t essentially have to register to Service Well being to know the impacted assets—after all, everybody ought to have the ability to devour this programmatically.

All of this may permit prospects with giant numbers of assets to know extra exactly which of their companies are impacted on account of an outage, with out having to conduct an investigation on their facet. Extra importantly, prospects can construct alerts and set off responses to those useful resource well being alerts utilizing native integrations to Logic Apps and Azure Features.


Though we assist each ‘push’ and ‘pull’ approaches for outage communications, we encourage prospects to configure related alerts, so the fitting data is routinely pushed out to the fitting individuals and methods. Our prospects and companions shouldn’t have to search around to see if the assets they care about are impacted by an outage—they need to have the ability to devour the notifications we ship (within the medium of their selection) and react to them as applicable. Regardless of this, we continuously discover that prospects go to the Azure Status web page to find out the well being of companies on Azure.

Earlier than the introduction of the authenticated in-portal Service Health expertise, the Standing web page was the one strategy to uncover recognized platform points. Today, this public Standing web page is just used to speak widespread outages (for instance, impacting a number of areas and/or a number of companies) so prospects searching for potential points impacting them don’t see the total story right here. Since we rollout platform modifications as safely as doable, the overwhelming majority of points like outages solely influence a really small ‘blast radius’ of buyer subscriptions. For these incidents, which make up greater than 95 % of our incidents, we talk on to impacted prospects in-portal by way of Service Well being.

We additionally lately built-in the ‘Emerging Issues’ function into Service Well being. Which means if now we have an incident on the general public Standing web page, and now we have but to establish and talk to impacted prospects, customers can see this identical data in-portal via Service Well being, thereby receiving all related data with out having to go to the Standing web page. We’re encouraging all Azure customers to make Service Well being their ‘one stop shop’ for data associated to service incidents, to allow them to see points impacting them, perceive which of their subscriptions and assets are impacted, and keep away from the danger of constructing a false correlation, similar to when an incident is posted on the Standing web page, however is just not impacting them.

Most significantly, since we’re speaking concerning the discoverability precept, from inside Service Well being prospects can create Service Health alerts, that are push notifications leveraging the combination with Azure Monitor. This manner, prospects and companions can configure related notifications based mostly on who must obtain them and the way they might finest be notified—together with by e mail, SMS, LogicApp, and/or via a webhook that may be built-in into service administration instruments like ServiceNow, PagerDuty, or Ops Genie.

To get began with easy alerts, contemplate routing all notifications to e mail a single distribution checklist. To take it to the subsequent stage, contemplate configuring totally different service well being alerts for various use instances—perhaps all manufacturing points notify ServiceNow, perhaps dev and take a look at or pre-production points would possibly simply e mail the related developer workforce, perhaps any subject with a sure subscription additionally sends a textual content message to key individuals. All of that is fully customizable, to make sure that the fitting individuals are notified in the fitting method.


All Azure customers ought to know that Service Well being is the one place to go, for all service impacting occasions. First, we make sure that this expertise is constant throughout all our totally different Azure Companies, every utilizing Service Well being to speak any points. So simple as this sounds, we’re nonetheless navigating via some distinctive situations that make this advanced. For instance, most individuals utilizing Azure DevOps don’t work together with the Azure portal. Since DevOps doesn’t have its personal authenticated Service Well being expertise, we are able to’t talk updates on to impacted prospects for small DevOps outages that don’t justify going to the general public Standing web page. To assist situations like this, now we have stood up the Azure DevOps status web page the place smaller scale DevOps outages could be communicated on to the DevOps group.

Second, the Service Well being expertise is designed to speak all impacting occasions throughout Azure—this consists of upkeep occasions in addition to service or function retirements, and consists of each widespread outages and remoted hiccups that solely influence a single subscription. It’s crucial that for any influence (whether or not it’s potential, precise or upcoming) prospects can count on the identical expertise and put in place a predictable motion plan throughout all of their companies on Azure.

Lastly, we’re working in the direction of increasing our philosophy of this pillar to increase to different Microsoft cloud merchandise. We acknowledge that, at instances, navigating via our totally different cloud merchandise similar to Azure, Microsoft 365, and Energy Platform can generally really feel like navigating applied sciences from three totally different firms. As we glance to the longer term, we’re invested in harmonizing throughout these merchandise to convey a couple of extra constant, best-in-class expertise.


As now we have talked about many instances within the Advancing Reliability weblog collection, we all know that belief is earned and must be maintained. With regards to outages, we all know that being clear about what is going on, what we all know, and what we don’t know is critically vital. The cloud shouldn’t really feel like a black field. Throughout service points, we offer common communications to all impacted prospects and companions. Usually, within the early levels of investigating a difficulty, these updates may not appear detailed till we be taught extra about what’s occurring. Regardless that we’re dedicated to sharing tangible updates, we usually attempt to keep away from sharing hypothesis, since we all know prospects make enterprise choices based mostly on these updates throughout outages.

As well as, an outage is just not over as soon as buyer influence is mitigated. We may nonetheless be studying concerning the complexities of what led to the difficulty, so generally the message despatched at or after mitigation is a reasonably rudimentary summation of what occurred. For main incidents, we observe this up with a PIR usually inside three days, as soon as the contributing components are higher understood.

For incidents that will have impacted fewer subscriptions, our prospects and companions can request extra data from inside Service Well being by requesting a PIR for the incident. We have now heard suggestions prior to now that PIRs must be much more clear, so we proceed to encourage our incident managers and communications managers to offer as a lot element as doable—together with details about the difficulty influence, and our subsequent steps to mitigate future danger. Ideally to make sure that this class of subject is much less seemingly and/or much less impactful transferring ahead.

Whereas our trade won’t ever be fully proof against service outages, we do take each alternative to take a look at what occurred from a holistic perspective and share our learnings. One of many future areas of funding at which we’re trying intently, is how finest to maintain prospects up to date with the progress we’re making on the commitments outlined in our PIR subsequent steps. By linking our inner restore gadgets to our exterior commitments in our subsequent steps, prospects and companions will have the ability to observe the progress that our engineering groups are making to make sure that corrective actions are accomplished.

Our communications throughout all of those situations (outages, upkeep, service retirements, and well being advisories) will proceed to evolve, as we be taught extra and proceed investing in packages that assist these 5 pillars.

Reliability is a shared duty

Whereas Microsoft is answerable for the reliability of the Azure platform itself, our prospects and companions are answerable for the reliability of their cloud purposes—together with utilizing architectural finest practices based mostly on the necessities of every workload. Constructing a dependable software within the cloud is totally different from conventional software growth. Traditionally, prospects might have bought ranges of redundant higher-end {hardware} to attenuate the prospect of a whole software platform failing. Within the cloud, we acknowledge up entrance that failures will occur. As outlined a number of instances above, we’ll by no means have the ability to forestall all outages. Along with Microsoft making an attempt to stop failures, when constructing dependable purposes within the cloud your purpose must be to attenuate the results of any single failing element.

To that finish, we lately launched the Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework—a set of guiding tenets that can be utilized to enhance the standard of a workload. Reliability is among the 5 pillars of architectural excellence alongside Value Optimization, Operational Excellence, Efficiency Effectivity, and Safety. If you have already got a workload working in Azure and wish to assess your alignment to finest practices in a number of of those areas, attempt the Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Review.

Particularly, the Reliability pillar describes six steps for constructing a dependable Azure software. Define availability and recovery requirements based mostly on decomposed workloads and enterprise wants. Use architectural best practices to establish doable failure factors in your proposed/present structure and decide how the applying will reply to failure. Test with simulations and forced failovers to check each detection and restoration from varied failures. Deploy the applying constantly utilizing dependable and repeatable processes. Monitor software well being to detect failures, monitor indicators of potential failures, and gauge the well being of your purposes. Lastly, reply to failures and disasters by figuring out how finest to handle it based mostly on established methods.

Returning to our core subject of outage communications, we’re working to include related Properly-Architected steerage into our PIRs within the aftermath of every service incident. Prospects working crucial workloads will have the ability to study particular steps to enhance reliability that may have helped to keep away from and reduce influence from that exact outage. For instance, if an outage solely impacted assets inside a single Availability Zone, we’ll name this out as a part of the PIRs and encourage impacted prospects to contemplate zonal redundancies for his or her crucial workloads.

Going ahead

We outlined how Azure approaches communications throughout and after service incidents like outages. We need to be clear about our 5 communication pillars, to clarify each our progress so far and the areas by which we’re persevering with to take a position. Simply as our engineering groups endeavor to be taught from every incident to enhance the reliability of the platform, our communications groups endeavor to be taught from every incident to be extra clear, to get prospects and companions the fitting particulars to make knowledgeable choices, and to assist prospects and companions as finest as doable throughout every of those troublesome conditions.

We’re assured that we’re making the fitting investments to persevering with enhancing on this area, however we’re more and more searching for suggestions on whether or not our communications are hitting the mark. We embody an Azure post-incident survey on the finish of every PIR we publish. We attempt to evaluate each response to be taught from our prospects and companions and validate whether or not we’re specializing in the fitting areas and to maintain enhancing the expertise.

We proceed to establish the inherent (and generally delicate) imperfections within the advanced ways in which our architectural designs, operational processes, {hardware} points, software program flaws, and human components align to trigger outages. Since belief is earned and must be maintained, we’re dedicated to being as clear as doable—particularly throughout these rare however inevitable service points.

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